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Aluminium alloys

Index

General

The main elements used as alloying elements to form the aluminium alloys of common industrial usage are magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), silicon (Si), zink (Zn).

Each of these gives the alloy specific properties; they are added to the aluminium base alone (binary alloys), two by two (ternary alloys), three by three (quaternary alloys).

In the following text casting alloys will not be discussed, since they do not belong to products delivered by Aviometal.

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Series

Aluminium alloys are grouped into families or "series", based on their designation, as described in the following.

Series 1000: (industrially pure aluminium - at least 99%); the alloys of this series show excellent corrosion resistance, very high electrical and thermal conductivity, good formability, low mechanical properties.
Mechanical properties can be improved, to a certain extent, through strain hardening.

The main applications include chemical plants, reflectors, heat exchangers, electrical conductors and capacitors, architectural and decorative applications.

Series 2000: copper is the main alloying element; in some alloys additions of magnesium and manganese are present.
They all are heat treatment alloys (solution treating, quenching and ageing are required to develop full mechanical properties); after heat treatment they show mechanical properties comparable to those of carbon steels.

Their corrosion resistance is lower than with other aluminium alloys, therefore for critical application suitable protection systems are required; for the same reason thin sheets are available also as clad sheet, where cladding is performed with other aluminium alloys, with better corrosion resistance.

These alloys are used for parts and structures requiring high ratio strength to weight (wheels for aircraft and ground vehicles, aerospace structures, cars suspension arms) for service temperatures up to about 150 °C.

They show very good machinability and (with the exception of alloy 2219) poor fusion weldability.

Series 5000: magnesium is the main alloying element.
These are strain hardening alloys (mechanical properties can be improved through cold rolling, and can not be improved by means of heat treatment); the mechanical properties are generally lower than 2000 series alloys.

Corrosion resistance is good, even in marine environment.

They show good fusion weldability.

Series 6000: the main alloying elements are silicon and magnesium.
These are heat treatment alloys; after heat treatment they show intermediate mechanical properties, generally lower than 2000 series alloys.

They show good formability, machinability and fusion weldability.

They are used for architectural applications, bike and motor bike frames, welded structures in general.

Series 7000: zink is the main alloying element, in general with additions of magnesium.
These are heat treatment alloys; after heat treatment they can develop the best mechanical properties among aluminium alloys.

The alloys with the highest strength can show sensitivity to stress corrosion cracking, therefore specific, "stabilised" tempers have been developed.

They show good machinability and, in most cases, poor fusion weldability.

They are used for aerospace structures, vehicles, and in general highly stressed parts.

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Chemical analysis

Strain hardening alloys

(mechanical properties can be improved only by means of plastic deformation at room temperature)

Alloy

Si

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Al

1050A

 

 

 

 

 

>=99.5

1250

 

 

 

 

 

>=99.5

Alloy

Si

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Altri

5005

 

 

 

0.5-1.1

 

 

5052

 

 

 

2.2-2.8

 

 

5056

 

 

 

4.5-5.6

 

 

5083

 

 

0.5-1.0

4.0-4.9

 

 

5086

 

 

 

3.5-4.5

 

 

5154

 

 

 

3.1-3.9

 

 

5454

 

 

 

2.4-3.0

 

 

5754

 

 

 

2.6-3.6

 

 

Heat treatment alloys

(mechanical properties can be improved by means of proper heat treatments)

Alloy

Si

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Altri

2011

 

4.5-6.0

0.2-0.8

 

 

Pb

2014

0.5-0.9

3.9-5.0

0.4-1.2

0.2-.08

 

 

2017

0.2-0.8

3.5-4.5

0.4-1.0

0.4-1.0

 

 

2024

 

3.8-4.9

0.3-0.9

1.2-1.8

 

 

2030

 

3.3-4.5

0.2-1.0

0.5-1.3

 

Pb

2219

 

5.8-6.8

0.2-0.4

 

 

 

2618

 

1.8-2.6

 

1.2-1.8

 

Ni

Alloy

Si

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Altri

6060

0.3-0.6

 

 

0.35-0.6

 

 

6061

0.4-0.8

0.15-0.40

 

0.8-1.2

 

 

6063

0.2-0.6

 

 

0.45-0.9

 

 

6082

0.7-1.3

 

0.4-1.0

0.6-1.2

 

 

Alloy

Si

Cu

Mn

Mg

Zn

Altri

7020

 

 

 

1.0-1.4

4.0-5.0

 

7049

 

1.2-1.9

 

2.1-3.1

7.2-8.4

 

7050

 

2.0-2.6

 

1.9-2.6

5.7-6.7

Zr

7075

 

1.2-2.0

 

2.1-2.9

5.1-6.1

 

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